Glossary

Atomic Force Microscope:  One of the foremost tools for imaging, measuring and manipulating matter on an atomic scale. Atoms are measured in units called angstroms (a hydrogen atom is approximately 2 to 3 angstroms tall); there are ten billion angstroms in a meter.  The Atomic Force Microscope has resolution down to 1 to 2 angstroms.

ATP Production: ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate.  Formed in the body from glucose and oxygen, it is the body’s source of energy in all chemical reactions involving all body functions.

Coulomb Force:  The electrostatic force that exists between electrically charged particles.  So named after Charles Coulomb, who described it.  In physics, the Inverse-Square Law (Coulomb’s Law) states that a specific physical quantity of strength (charge) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of the force.

Cytokines: A wide variety of proteins in the body produced by the immune system.  They are “signaling cells”, are involved in cell-to-cell communication, and are essential in the body’s immune function.  Each cytokine has a corresponding cell-surface receptor.  When the cytokine combines with its specific cell-surface receptor, a specific reaction occurs in the immune system pathways.

Debye-Huckel Model:  Described by Peter Debye (Dutch physicist, chemist and Nobel Laureate) and Erich Huckel (German Physicist and Chemist). The Debye-Hückel set of equations is the definitive study of ionic solutions.

Double Helix Water ®: The registered trademark owned by D&Y Laboratories Inc. Double Helix Water ® is an ultra-pure water preparation that contains high concentrations of Stable Water Clusters.

Interferon-Y: A protein in the body involved in many actions.  It is best known for its action as part of the anti-viral response.

Pleomorphism:  The term is used to refer to the ability of certain bacteria to change shape or to exist in a number (changing) forms.  For example Helicobacter pylori exists as both a helix-shaped form (classified as a curved rod) and a coccoid form.  In science, pleomorphism means anything that exists in more than one form.

PSI: Stands for pounds per square inch.  PSI is a measure of pressure.

Stable Water Clusters:  Nanometer-sized, rigid, ice-like (but formed at room temperature) water clusters that demonstrate a measurable polar charge. Described in detail in October of 2009, International Journal of Physics, Physics Letters A, “Evidence for the existence of stable-water-clusters at room temperature and normal pressure”.

TH1 and TH2: Refers to two classes of helper T-lymphocyte cells.  T-lymphocytes are blood cells involved in the body’s immune process.  These helper cells direct the body’s immune response along two separate pathways.

TNF-A, IL-1, IL-6, IFN-Y: TNF stands for tumor necrosis factor.  IL stands for interleukin.  IFN stands for interferon.  All are cytokines involved in the human immune response.  There are several forms of each factor, thus the numbers and letters following the letter abbreviations.  These are known as proinflammatory cytokines.

Ultra-high-density magnetic recording: Increased proximity of magnetic domains on a given area thereby increasing the ability to write a closer proximity binary language.